What security measures are different pre 9/11 to post 9/11 in transportation areas such as the airport and what are some needed adjustments to improve current security measures?

Published by Jeannie R. Ferrell

Nov 16, 2022


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Research question: What security measures are different pre 9/11 to post 9/11 in transportation areas such as the airport and what are some needed adjustments to improve current security measures?
Research Hypothesis: If security measures in transportation areas such as the airport were the same as pre 9/11, where would the country be now with the ability to protect itself against terrorist and other criminals?
For this assignment you need to submit your research methods section of your paper. You will need to explain how your study would be carried out. What research design and methodology do you plan to use? Your explanation needs to be clear enough that it would allow someone to replicate your study. You will need to choose whether you want to do a qualitative or quantitative study, and how you will collect your data, and what you will do with your data. In other words, how will you analyze the data in order to test your hypothesis. Please also include a sampling plan to show the reader why you chose the data. Make sure that your proposed data has a beginning and an end. Remember, the point of the methodology section is to show the reader that you are not simply collecting data to support a hypothesis. Show the reader what your plan is and justify it with reference to scholarly articles on the philosophy of methodology. Give some thought to why this method is the best one to answer your research question. Is it because the data is available in one method but not another? Is it because the data will be more or less reliable? Consider whether the study is replicable and whether the data is available.
Please include the following elements:
Research question.
Research hypothesis.
Overall methodology including why you did not choose to use the other method.
Proposed collection of data and sampling plan including data parameters.
Analysis methodology and how you will test the hypothesis.
Ethical considerations and limitations of your study
Technical Requirements
Your paper must be at a minimum of 2-3 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).
Peer reviewed and scholarly references should be used. You should include at least 2 references for this assignment.
Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.
Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.
Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.
All submissions will be graded using the assignment rubric.
Example Down Below is my Research Question and Hypothesis for leading up to this assignment.
Transportation Security
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, had a profound impact on the United States. In addition, the terrorist attacks changed the landscape of transportation security in the United States. Before 9/11, airport security focused on deterring and detecting traditional criminal activity, such as smuggling drugs or weapons. However, in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, the primary focus of airport security shifted to preventing terrorist attacks. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created in response to the 9/11 attacks and is charged with developing and implementing security measures to protect the nation’s transportation systems, including airports (Lawson et al., 2020). Moreover, several new security measures were put in place, including using metal detectors and X-ray machines, banning certain items from carry-on luggage, and implementing the no-fly list.
One of the most visible changes in airport security post-9/11 is the increased presence of security personnel. In addition, before the security measures, screening was primarily conducted by private security companies contracted by the airlines. These companies focused on preventing weapons and explosives from being brought onto aeroplanes and on deterring and detecting traditional criminal activity. However, they did not have the expertise or resources to screen for terrorist threats. In contrast, the TSA, a federal agency with a mandate to prevent terrorist attacks, had sophisticated and more advanced weapons in terms of technology (Thomas, 2018).
Another significant change in airport security post-9/11 is the use of technology. Before 9/11, airports relied on metal detectors to screen passengers and their baggage. However, metal detectors are ineffective against all threats, such as those posed by explosives. In response to the 9/11 attacks, the TSA implemented Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT), which uses x-rays to screen passengers and their baggage for various threats, including explosives.
The increased presence of security personnel and technology made airport security more effective at deterring and detecting potential threats. However, these measures also made travel more time-consuming and inconvenient for passengers. In addition, the TSA has been criticized for its use of invasive screening techniques, such as pat-downs and body scanners. As a result, the agency has been working to strike a balance between security and passenger privacy.
In conclusion, the 9/11 attacks had a profound impact on the United States. The TSA was created in response in order to protect the nation’s transportation systems, including airports. The increased presence of security personnel and the use of technology has made airport security more effective at deterring and detecting potential threats (Fox, 2021). There have been no successful terrorist attacks on commercial aeroplanes in the United States since 9/11. However, these measures have also made travel more time-consuming and inconvenient for passengers.
Lawson, C., Bersin, A., & Kayyem, J. N. (Eds.). (2020). Beyond 9/11: Homeland Security for the Twenty-First Century. MIT Press.
Thomas, J. (2018, May 24). Reflections on the influence of the 9/11 attacks on domestic security practices and future cyber security needs. SSRN. Retrieved October 13, 2022, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3177272
Fox, S. J. (2021, November 30). Past events: In hindsight! 20 years after – 9/11. STORE – Staffordshire Online Repository. Retrieved October 12, 2022, from http://eprints.staffs.ac.uk/7137/
Schaper, D. (2021, September 10). It was shoes on, no boarding pass or ID. but airport security forever changed on 9/11. NPR. Retrieved October 13, 2022, from https://www.npr.org/2021/09/10/1035131619/911-travel-timeline-tsa
The Methodology/Theory Used:
The substantive theory I have selected to help in answering the research question is Kiltz and Ramsay’s theory. The approach is built on the four strong pillars brought about after extensive analysis on literature revolving around criminal justice. The conceptual homeland security enterprises are focused on the following aspects. First, the theory views homeland security as criminal justice problem and regards terrorist attacks as a criminal offense that should not be tolerated (Ramsay et al., 2020). Secondly, homeland security is viewed by the theory as an international relation problem regarding terrorism as a war. Furthermore, proponents of the theory believe that terrorism is a network of sub-state transnational actors. Homeland security threats are attacks based on the complex mixture of the people’s social, political, economic, and environmental issues. The theory is good for the research project because it expounds on the nature of terrorist attacks that surrounds pre- 9/11 attacks.
The theory has used one of the 9/11 attack scenarios to develop an insightful coverage of the goals of such terrorist acts and how they are carried out. Since the primary focus of homeland security is to protect the lives of American citizens, this theoretical approach will help point out the failures made in the previous attempt to curb insecurity issues affecting the country. The theory will help point out the differences between the pre-9/11 and post-9/11 terrorist attacks surrounding transportation areas, especially airports (Binns, 2020). From the theory, pointing out adjustments that need to be taken will be more straightforward since we can learn from some mistakes highlighted in the case presented by the theory. Looking at how the attack was approached, we will be in a position to improve and build up on the weaknesses of the case. The theory uses risk, interaction, and connection as the dependent variable (DV) and organizational size as the independent variable (IV).
Sarah B.
Ramsay, J. D., Cozine, K., & Comiskey, J. (Eds.). (2020). Theoretical Foundations of Homeland Security: Strategies, Operations, and Structures. Routledge.
Binns, C. A. (2020). Crime and security. In Theoretical Foundations of Homeland Security (pp. 58–77). Routledge.


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