What were the highest and lowest responses?

Published by Jeannie R. Ferrell

Nov 18, 2022


Struggling with a similar assignment? Don’t know where to start? Don’t have time to work on this? Get a high-quality paper written for you from scratch – PLAGIARISM FREE, guaranteed to get you a good grade. To get started, please click on the Submit Your Instructions at the bottom of the page.

Assignment 1: Beginning a Quantitative Study Using Existing Data
Complete the following assignment by filling in all requested information (see attachment). You will need to utilize SPSS and the GSS dataset provided in class to complete it. Use a different (legible) color font for your responses. This assignment is intended to orient you to the format of a research proposal and first sections of a quantitative research article. Use the variables chosen in the Week 1 Discussion.
This assignment is to be completed and submitted no later than the Sunday of Week 2 by 11:55pm ET. It is worth 100 points.
General requirements:
Submissions should be typed, with 1″ margins, Times New Roman 12 pt font (or similar font), and saved as .doc, .docx, or .pdf.
Use APA format for citations and references
View the grading rubric so you understand how you will be assessed on this Assignment.
Disclaimer – Originality of attachments will be verified by Turnitin. Both you and your instructor will receive the results.
This course has “Resubmission” status enabled to help you if you realized you submitted an incorrect or blank file, or if you need to submit multiple documents as part of your Assignment. Resubmission of an Assignment after it is graded, to attempt a better grade, is not permitted.
Univariate Statistics – Distributions, Measures of Central Tendency/Dispersion
Overview: Course Objective(s):
CO2: Demonstrate successful navigation of SPSS to perform a variety of different statistical procedures
CO3: Illustrate which statistical methods to use based on data, design, and research goal
CO4: Analyze output of statistical procedure based on the context of data, research design and goal.
Chapters 2-6
Chapters 3-5
Univariate vs Bivariate Statistics
Some data have only one variable. For example, if I were to record the ages of all students in a school and graph my data, then there would only be one variable, the age of the students. This type of data is known as univariate data and it is useful in describing samples or populations. Univariate data does not deal with relationships. Bivariate data, on the other hand, is data that involves two different variables. The purpose of bivariate data is to analyze and explain the relationship between the independent (IV) and the dependent variables (DV).
For your class project, you are analyzing how a specific IV of your choice affects a DV of your choice. The first step in the process is to look at each variable individually. That is what we are doing this week.
We describe variables individually through basic descriptive statistics which include measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. Measures of central tendency, or the “average” responses, are generally indicated through one of the following three statistics: mean, median, and mode. We rely on measures of dispersion (frequencies, variance, and standard deviation) to describe how similar (or not) a group of observations is to one another.
For example, frequencies allow us to look at each variable individually to see what the breakdown looks like. How did people respond to each question? What were the highest and lowest responses? What was the average response? This helps us to understand what our sample looks like and whether there is enough variation to warrant investigating the variable. Charts give us a visual representation of our frequency tables. When looking at interval-ratio variables, the standard deviation measures the spread of cases around the mean.
If there is enough variation in responses, we continue with the analysis, but if not, we choose different variables.
For example, if 99% of the responses about either of our variables was the same, it doesn’t help us much to look at that because our population is too similar on that matter. If 99% of our sample is married, it doesn’t help to look at how being married or not affects happiness. There aren’t enough single people to compare to those who are married. Make sense? This week we will take a look at these statistics and how we use them in the process.
Most of us learned about distributions in elementary math, and likely didn’t even know it, when we were asked to count M&M’s by color. We emptied the package and the distribution looked something like this:
Brown: 6
Red: 5
Orange: 4
Green: 5
Blue: 3
A distribution is the breakdown of a variable – how many times each value within the variable is or could be represented in the sample or population. Frequencies are often called frequency distributions, because they are a numerical representation of a distribution. Charts also provide visual representations of distributions. The following link gives an overview of distributions (but you can skip the section on probability densities): “Distributions(this link opens in a new window/tab) ” from Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study.
Frequency distributions or tables, in essence, take a variable and count all the different responses to the survey question. They also count missing values. Take, for example, the GSS variable HAPPY (general happiness – subjective). When we run a frequency and generate a table, we can see the frequency (how often) for each response (very happy, pretty happy, …), the relative frequency (the percentage, also titled the valid percent), and the cumulative percent. It will also highlight if any of the data entries ( a row within SPSS) was missing that value).
The frequency column gives us a count for each response. When asked about their general happiness, we can see that out of 2,348 respondents, 701 selected “very happy,” 1,307 selected “pretty happy,” and 336 selected “not too happy.” Four respondents selected “don’t know,” which is considered a missing case, because they did not give a valid answer. The Percent column gives us the total percent for each – out of the total respondents, while the Valid Percent gives us the percent for each out of the total valid responses (excludes the missing cases).
Charts give us another visual of the frequency. While SPSS allows for the creation of complex charts, we will stick with basic ones – pie for nominal variables, bar for ordinal variables, and histograms for interval/ratio variables.
Select each tab to learn more.
Pie Chart
Bar Chart
Pie chart – variable RELIG16 (religion in respondent was raised):
Shows the breakdown of religions in SPSS, with Protestant, Catholic, and None taking the top three spots in that order.
Normal Curve
Basic statistics are best applied to populations (and samples) that are normally distributed. When graphed, normal distributions look like a bell curve where most values hover around the mean with a few high and low values. Looking at education levels for those who work in an elementary school, for example, we would expect most teachers to have Bachelor’s degrees, while a few paraprofessionals may have Associate’s degrees and the principals/counselors might have higher degrees. We would also expect salaries to be relatively similar for teachers, with paraprofessionals making less and principals making more. We would say the variables, education (measured by degree) and employee salaries, are normally distributed.
The following website discusses the features of normal distributions and how they are calculated: “Introduction to Normal Distributions(this link opens in a new window/tab) ” from Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study, (For a more in-depth look at normal distributions, watch the video included in the chapter.)
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of central tendency indicate the average of the distribution of a variable and offer a summary of the variable based on the population or sample. For example, if our target population for our study on education/income is US workers over 25, and we know from the Census that the average (mean) income for all US workers over 25 is $54,000, then we would want our sample average income to be close to $54,000. Understanding the variables is vitally important to understanding the research. You should understand the differences among three measures of central tendency: the mean, the median and mode.
The sum of all the values of a variable, divided by the number of values. We commonly call this the “average.”
The mean is often used with interval/ratio variables.
The mean is represented by the symbol and the formula
or the sum of all the values of the variable divided by the number of values.
The middle value when values are ordered.
Often used with ordinal variables. You might think about the “median” as the “middle number.”
The most frequently selected value. Often used with nominal variables.
Measures of Dispersion:
Variance & Standard Deviation
Measures of dispersion display the variation of a variable.
Variation is important for knowing if the variable warrants analysis. For example, if 90 percent of the people who are part of your sample have a bachelor’s degree and make $30,000/year, there would be no need to analyze the effects of education on income. However, if there were different levels of education represented from Associate’s degrees to Bachelor’s degrees to Specialists in Education, and incomes ranged from $20,000 to $60,000, the study may be viable.
Frequency Distributions, often displayed in a table, show the number (or frequency) and percentage of each category or value of the variable. They are particularly useful for nominal and ordinal variables, but can also be used with interval/ratio variables.
Range is the simplest measure of dispersion for interval/ratio variables, and is simply the difference between the highest value and the lowest value of a variable.
Variance is a measure of how far each value in the data set is from the mean.
Standard Deviation is the most commonly used measure of dispersion for interval/ratio variables. It is a measure of the average distance from the mean for all the values represented in a variable (and is the square root of the variance).
The Formula for Standard Deviation
What each of the Symbols represents
s is the standard deviation
x represents each value (data point)
is the mean
n is the number of values (data pts)
The standard deviation is most useful when the variable has a normal distribution, meaning most values are close to the mean with a few outliers on both sides.
Have you ever thought of yourself as a “visual learner?”
Well, many times statistical details are shown using graphical representations. For a more detailed overview, take a look at the series of lessons from the following site: “Graphing Distribution(this link opens in a new window/tab) ,” from Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study .
In the discussions, we will discuss how to use SPSS to create, manipulate, and publish several of these data graphics.
Univariate Analyses in SPSS
Frequencies, Charts, and Descriptives
Before attempting these analyses, be sure to read through the Lessons on Distributions and Descriptive Statistics posted in the classroom. Frequency tables, charts, and measures of central tendency and dispersion (often called descriptives) can all be generated using the same function in SPSS. To run analyses of data in SPSS, you will use the ANALYZE function.
Practice Exploration: Frequencies, Charts & Descriptives
Open SPSS.
Open the GSS data file (.sav) within SPSS. (FILE – OPEN DATA).
In the menu across the top of the data view window, choose Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics and finally, Frequencies.The Frequency function will create a frequency table for you, but you can also include a descriptive statistics table and/or a chart, if needed.
Once you click on Frequencies, a window will pop up that allows you to select your variables for analysis and to specify what you want to include. To choose your variable, find it from the list on the left and select it. Then move it to the right-hand side using the arrow in the middle of the screen.At this point, you could click OK on the bottom right and SPSS would generate a frequency table. However, if you want to add other tables/charts or format the frequency table specifically, use the buttons on the top right.
We want to add a descriptive statistics table, so click on Statistics in the upper right. Another window will pop up that allows you to choose which data you want to include.
Select the Mean, Median, and Mode under Central Tendency, and from Dispersion select Variance, and Standard Deviation, and then click Continue at the bottom of that window. It will take you back to the Frequencies window.
Now, click on Charts in the top right-hand side. Another window will pop up. The type of chart you select depends on the level of measurement of your variable.
Select the chart best represents your chosen variables (Review Distributions for assistance making a decision on which chart to select. )
Once you’ve chosen a chart, click Continue at the bottom of the Charts window. It will take you back to the Frequencies window. (At this point, you could format the table; however, I generally stick with the SPSS defaults.)
Now, click OK at the bottom of the Frequencies window.
Once you click OK, the SPSS output window will pop up. Remember, this is the window that displays and keeps track of all your analyses. Go ahead and click on FILE – SAVE AS to save your output file (.spv). It is extremely important to save your work!
What should you see?
On your output file, you’ll notice syntax at the top of the screen. This is a review of your actions taken.
Next, you will see the descriptive statistics table that lists the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and variance. It also tells you the number of valid cases (responses to the survey on the question/variable) and the number of missing cases (didn’t respond to question or listed NA, don’t know, etc.).
Then, you will see the frequency table. If it is a large table, you will need to scroll down to view it fully.
Last, you will see your chart. Notice values are based on frequencies, not percentages. SPSS also has a GRAPH function that allows for the creation of more complex charts, but for our purposes we only need these basic ones.
You may also notice a running log on the left-hand side of the output window. This basically keeps track of every action you perform in SPSS while the window is open.
Here is the tutorial in a printable PDF document: Running Frequencies and Descriptives in SPSS


Need Writing Help? Our writing specialists are here 24/7, every day of the year, ready to support you! Instantly chat with an online tutor below or click here to submit your paper instructions to the writing team.


More than just an assignment.

Explore Now →

Who is this homework service for?

* If you are having a really hard class and want to get through it, then this is for you.

* If you have a medical emergency or someone close to you has a medical emergency and you don’t think you’ll be able to turn your assignment on time, this is definitely a service you could use.

* You can use us if you are having a tough Professor who won’t give you the grades you deserve.

* If you have a tight work schedule and you are getting points deducted for not submitting assignments on time.

* English might not be your first language and you feel like you are being left behind in class because of it.

* If you have a large project coming up and don’t think you have enough time to get it done well, definitely reach out to us.


Super stoked you are checking us out! We would like to help you with your assignment. We just need a few things from you:

* The full assignment instructions as they appear on your school account.

* If a Rubric is present, make sure to attach it.

* Any relevant weekly readings or learning resources.

* Include any special announcements or emails you might have gotten from your Professor regarding your assignment.

* Any templates or additional files required to complete the assignment.

If your assignment is somewhat complex and you need to explain it, please don’t hesitate to reach out to me via live chat. 



Frequently asked questions

How soon can I get my paper done?

It depends with your deadline. If you need your paper completed in 3 hours, we will deliver it in that time. All you need to do is indicate your deadline in our custom order page here. Alternatively, if you are sending us your instructions via email, please be sure to indicate your deadline.

Will it be completely original? I don't want to be caught in a case of Academic Integrity Violation.

We are as paranoid as you are. Maybe even more! And we understand that the greatest sin you can commit in your academic journey is plagiarizing your academic work. To that end, we have made sure that we check and double-check our papers using high quality plagiarism detection tools such as SafeAssign and Turnitin before submitting the paper to you.

Who is my writer? Is he/she a native English Speaker?

All our writers are native English Speakers. That is not to say that ESL writers are not good, we just prefer hiring native writers because we want the very best people working on your paper. This might mean paying a little bit more for your paper as opposed to when you pay a foreign company whose writers are non-native English Speakers.

What if I need revisions? Will your charge additional for this?

Of course not! If you do happen to require a revision on your paper, our team will handle it for you free of charge. Matter of fact, we won’t rest till you are happy with your paper. So, ask for as many revisions as you need, it’s completely FREE!

Will you give me my money back if I don't like my paper?

We have very few instances where we delivered a paper that a client didn’t fall in love with. But if it so happens that you don’t like your paper for any reason whatsoever, we’ll refund your money back no questions asked.

I have more assignments after this, can you help me with those too?

Of course! And what’s even better is that we can reserve a writer permanently to work on your entire class. This comes in handy for projects which build up on each other and where you need just one writer, one writing style.

I got my order information wrong, can I change that?

Yes you can. Just reach out to our support team via email (support@essaynook.com) or live chat here and they’ll help you change the instructions.

Can I place an order via email instead of going through the order page?

Yes you can. Email Anna at anna@essaynook.com, she’s in charge of our sales team. Alternatively, you can talk to our Live Chat team here and request to speak to Anna.

Trusted by Thousands of Students

Delivering quality assignments since 2007