Below is info for a classmate’s powerpoint presentation. Please provide a discussion response.
Part of what makes the United States system so complex is the multifaceted way you can view federalism itself. We see this in the complex models of federalism by Deil Wright and others (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). Below I have outlined the slides that would be utilized and given a presentation about Deil Wrights’ models of intergovernmental relations.
Title Slide – Models of Intergovernmental Relations
Slide 1 – In the first slide of this presentation, I would begin with historical points about intergovernmental relations and their developments over the last hundred years. Specifically, I would list William Anderson’s book Intergovernmental Relations in Review as well as Morton Grodzin’s and the introduction of marble cake federalism as discussed by Agranoff & Radin (2014). The emphasis of this slide would be to help viewers have a better understanding of the historical discussion around intergovernmental relations.
Slide 2 – Next, I would begin to discuss the four waves of IGR, specifically listing the following: law and politics, welfare state development and expansion, agents and partners of governments, and IGR networks (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). Under each of these points will be listed brief facts about each period and how it uniquely impacted IGR. This can be tailored specifically to local governments, as they are a primary deliverer of goods and services; often reflecting local political and economic values (Liberty University, n.d.). For example, under welfare state development, the growth of social welfare programs was significant from the early 1900s through the 1960s (Agranoff & Radin, 2014) yet at the same time, program management and implementation was often left to the states (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). Another example would be the growth of local government in IGR during the New Deal (Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011).
Slide 3 – The third slide would then have Figure 1: Models of national, state, and local relationships as given by Agranoff & Radin (2014). Each model will be discussed, including coordinated authority, overlapping authority, and inclusive authority and their relationship to IGR. Specifically overlapping authority is the most consistent model that aligns with a federal system (Agranoff & Radin, 2014).
Slide 4 – Slide four would list the six chief characteristics that Wright originally focused on as well as several examples that help demonstrate the explanation of how state and local government are utilized within phase four of IGR. Individual examples can be discussed, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which highlights the wide array of state responses and implementation of federal legislation (Agranoff & Radin, 2014).
Slide 5 – Slide five would discuss the expansion of actors through IGR. This would be a good time to reflect on the four phases of IGR discussed in slide 2. Through this, it can be explained how the changing dynamic of IGR has increased the number of actors involved (Agranoff & Radin, 2014; Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011). Importantly, it will be necessary to draw the difference between standard governmental bodies that have been involved in IGR in the past and how IGR now goes well beyond government entities (Agranoff & Radin, 2014; Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011).
Slide 6 – Next it will be important to discuss the practical application of the overlapping model in how decisions are being made. Despite demonstrating that an overlapping model of IGR requires an increase in intergovernmental communication many organizations default to administrating decisions of the federal government (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). An Increase in actors, as discussed in slide 5, has made this even more complex (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). In addition, the functionality of IGR often depends on the view of federal authority and the willingness of local actors to work as subservient or as partners with the federal government (McGuire, 2006).
Slide 7 – Slide 7 would discuss networks in public administration, specifically the difference between chartered and nonchartered networks. Chartered networks are established “by intergovernmental agreement registration” (Agranoff & Radin, 2014, p. 149). Noncharted networks have no official legal status but are permanent well-established organizations (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). These networks have become an invaluable part of IGR and work best when working together toward common solution (Agranoff & Radin, 2014, Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011).
Slide 8 – Performance and IGR would then be discussed. Specifically, performance measures have become popular in IGR as a means to determine program success (Agranoff & Radin, 2014). Federal authority has also inserted itself into performance measures even though they are often multiple ways to achieve a program’s goal (Agranoff & Radin, 2014)
Slide 9 – Slide 9 would discuss the change need to take place in organizations, specifically; managing multiple partnerships and increasing actor networking and engagement. This includes increasing the need for working with nongovernmental actors and their subsequent networks (Agranoff & Radin, 2014).
Slide 10 – The final slide will challenge local leaders to examine their organizations. It will ask them to identify individual actors within their organization and what organization they work with through IGR. Finally, it will ask them to conduct a self-evaluation of their organization and identify what problems they are currently working to solve and how other organizations are being involved in this process.
Slide 11 – Resources
If there is one clear thing, it is that intergovernmental relations require not only the systems and procedures to make IGR successful but the willingness of individuals to work together to accomplish what cannot be done alone (Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011). Ecclesiastes 4: 9-10 says, “Two are better than one because they have a good return for their labor. If either of them falls down, one can help the other up…” (New International Version, 2011). By working together, we have a greater ability to solve problems and use each other’s strengths to help accomplish goals. This means possibly increasing state authority, as it is relatively limited to what has been delegated by the state (Liberty University, n.d.) while increasing collaboration by actors at all levels of government (Agranoff & Radin, 2014; Kincaid & Stenberg, 2011).
Agranoff, R., & Radin, B. A. (2014). Deil wright’s overlapping model of intergovernmental relations: The basis for contemporary intergovernmental relationships. Publius, 45(1), 139–159. https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pju036
Kincaid, J., & Stenberg, C. W. (2011). “Big questions” about intergovernmental relations and management: Who will address them? Public Administration Review, 71(2), 196–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02330.x
Liberty University. (n.d.). State and local government intergovernmental relations: Part II [Slide show]. Liberty University Canvas. /courses/405852/files/89175284
McGuire, M. (2006). Intergovernmental management: A view from the bottom. Public Administration Review, 66(5), 677–679. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00632.x
New International Version. (2011). Biblica (Original work published 1973)
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Below is info for a classmate’s powerpoint presentation. Please provide a discussion response.
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