Other free resources are also provided at the end of this document.

Published by Jeannie R. Ferrell

Dec 8, 2022


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Using the literature provided at the end of this document and any other source of
information, synthesize the external and internal morphological adaptations of fishes in
relation to their habitats and behaviors. At this point, you should be writing in general about
all fishes, not introducing your three study species (you will do this in the “Materials and
Methods” section).
The main objective of this section is to familiarize yourself with the functional-evolutionary
diversity of fishes. Make sure you cover the following aspects:
• Body shape and locomotory adaptations *
• Mouth type, position, size, teeth type
• Anatomy of the fins (size, shape)
• Digestive systems (length of the intestines, carnivores, omnivores, herbivores)
• Types of behaviors
• Adaptations to freshwater vs. saltwater habitatsYour introductory paragraph should present:
• The research question
• Your hypothesis or hypotheses
• A prediction
Figures 1 and 2 below from the Helfman et al. 2009 textbook (provided at the end of this
document) along with Week 9’s Animal Diversity II: Vertebrates module will be helpful as
you start to think about your instructions. Other free resources are also provided at the end of this document.
I attached the data collection if you need it.Helpful Resources
Bone Q, Moore RH (2008) Biology of Fishes. Available at:
• Body shape, pages 13-18
• Food and feeding, pages 189-214
Caillon F, Bonhmme V, Mollmann C, Frelat R (2018) A morphometric dive into fish
diversity. Available at:
Helfman GS, Collette BB, Facey D, Bowen BW (2009) The Diversity of Fishes. Biology,
Evolution, and Ecology. Available at:
• Functional morphology of locomotion and feeding, pages 111-128
• Fish feeding ecology, pages 425-454
Smits, A. J. (2019). Undulatory and oscillatory swimming. Journal of Fluid
Mechanics, 874. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-fluidmechanics/article/undulatory-and-oscillatoryswimming/74B7173131202AE623DFD70215487D30
Wilson JM, Castro LFC (2010) Morphological diversity of the gastrointestinal tract in
fishes. Available at:


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